Over the last few years, containers have emerged as possibly the most important trend in enterprise technology since the advent of hardware virtualization in the ’90s. From Google to Amazon, from Microsoft to Red Hat, the biggest players in software development are turning to this virtualization technology and are working furiously to support Docker, the new container management platform.
But what do containers really do, and is adopting Docker the right move for your company? Read on to find out.
The first thing to realize is that containers are actually not a new technology, but have been built into Unix-like operating systems for decades. Simply put, they are a way of bundling applications and their dependencies into a unit that can be easily shipped, deployed, and run in isolation of other processes. Each container encapsulates a running application and its user space, and runs on top of the underlying operating system’s kernel.
As a result, a container can be distributed and deployed independently of the host machine, as long as the OS kernel is the same. In other words, containers do away with complicated dependency management and the need to set up complex environments by hand, and provide a sandboxed environment for applications to run in. The result is a faster and more reliable development and deployment process.
If you’re thinking that this kind of application and dependency bundling sounds a lot like virtual machines, you’re right. The difference is that virtual machines bundle up the entire operating system, while containers do not.
This might not seem like a big deal, but the consequences are huge. The bottom line is that containers are drastically smaller and faster than virtual machines. A hardware setup that can support only a few dozen virtual machines can often run hundreds of containers, and a typical container will load in milliseconds, compared to seconds or even minutes for a virtual machine.
This is one of the reasons why containers are so hot right now, and explains why a company like Google now runs all its internal and external services within containers. But Google has an army of top engineers to make sure that its container setup works well. What should you do if you want to try containers but don’t have Google’s resources?
Even though containers have been around for decades, chances are that you’ve only heard of them in the last few years. In fact, the growing popularity of containers is directly tied to the growing popularity of Docker, a platform for managing containers on Linux systems.
Docker is not a container system itself — it relies on the container capabilities of the underlying operating system. Instead, Docker simplifies the creation and distribution of container images. Just as importantly, Docker also enables runtime constraints on the way that containers use hardware resources, providing the kind of resource sharing that’s typical of virtual machines.
Docker came along at the right time to popularize the decades-old container technology, and now, it is supported inside Amazon Web Services, the Google Compute Engine, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Even Microsoft is working to integrate Docker containers into the newest version of Windows Server. While several alternatives exist, Docker is undeniably the king of the container mountain right now.
So far, we’ve talked about the big benefits of containers relative to virtual machines, and relative to traditional, bare-metal environments. But before you jump on the Docker train, there are a couple of issues you should be aware of.
The first of these is the pace of development. Docker is being developed at a rapid clip, and there might be subsequent issues with backwards compatibility. Also, a new release of Docker typically comes out once or twice a month, and updating the Docker binary currently requires shutting down all containers running on the machine. These issues might be blockers for many deployment scenarios.
Second, security within containers is still an open topic. While containers provide additional isolation compared to non-virtualized environments, they provide less isolation (and therefore protection) than virtual machines.
One solution to this problem is to run containers inside of a virtual machine. Another option is to use WhiteSource’s real-time alerts on security vulnerabilities within Docker containers. Right now, WhiteSource is able to detect open-source components in the container itself (CentOS and Debian) and detect the software inside (covering 16 different programming languages).
Even with these issues, containers hold the promise of easier development and deployment processes. As the increasing support and adoption of Docker throughout the industry indicate, it’s definitely worth investing some resources to figure out whether your organization could also benefit from this spreading technology.